Martin A. Nowak

Selected Publications

All Publications:

1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015


  1. Nowak M, P Schuster (1989). Error thresholds of replication in finite populations. Mutation frequencies and the onset of Muller's ratchet. J theor Biol 137 (4): 375-395. PDF
  2. Nowak M, K Sigmund (1989). Game-dynamical aspects of the prisoner's dilemma. Appl Math Comp 30 (3): 191-213. PDF
  3. Nowak M, K Sigmund (1989). Oscillations in the evolution of reciprocity. J theor Biol 137 (1): 21-26. PDF
  4. 1990

  5. Nowak M (1990). An evolutionarily stable strategy may be inaccessible. J theor Biol 142 (2): 237-241. PDF
  6. Nowak M (1990). HIV mutation rate. Nature 347 (6293): 522. PDF
  7. Nowak M (1990). Stochastic strategies in the prisoner's dilemma. Theor Popul Biol 38 (1): 93-112. PDF
  8. Nowak MA, RM May, RM Anderson (1990). The evolutionary dynamics of HIV quasispecies and the development of immunodeficiency disease. AIDS 4 (11): 1095-1103. PDF
  9. Nowak M, K Sigmund (1990). The evolution of stochastic strategies in the prisoner's dilemma. Acta Appl Math 20 (3): 247-265. PDF
  10. 1991

  11. Kwiatkowski D, M Nowak (1991). Periodic and chaotic host-parasite interactions in human malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88 (12): 5111-5113. PDF
  12. Magurran AE, MA Nowak (1991). Another battle of the sexes: The consequences of sexual asymmetry in mating costs and predation risk in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Proc R Soc B 246 (1315): 31-38. PDF
  13. Nowak M (1991). The evolution of viruses. Competition between horizontal and vertical transmission of mobile genes. J theor Biol 150 (3): 339-347. PDF
  14. Nowak MA, RM Anderson, A R McLean, T Wolfs, J Goudsmit, RM May (1991). Antigenic diversity thresholds and the development of AIDS. Science 254: 963-369. PDF
  15. Nowak MA, RM May (1991). Mathematical biology of HIV infections: antigenic variation and diversity threshold. Math Biosci 106: 1-21. PDF
  16. Nowak MA, AR McLean (1991). A mathematical model of vaccination against HIV to prevent development of AIDS. Proc R Soc B 246: 141-146. PDF
  17. 1992

  18. McLean AR, MA Nowak (1992). Competition between zidovudine sensitive and resistant strains of HIV. AIDS 6: 71-79. PDF
  19. McLean AR, MA Nowak (1992). Models of interactions between HIV and other pathogens. J theor Biol 155: 69-86. PDF
  20. Nowak MA (1992). Variability in HIV infections. J theor Biol 155: 1-20. PDF
  21. Nowak MA (1992). What is a quasispecies? Trends Ecol Evol 7: 118-121. PDF
  22. Nowak MA, RM May (1992). Coexistence and competition in HIV infections. J theor Biol 159: 329-342. PDF
  23. Nowak MA, RM May (1992). Evolutionary games and spatial chaos. Nature 359: 826-829. PDF
  24. Nowak MA , K Sigmund (1992). Tit for tat in heterogeneous populations. Nature 355: 250-253. PDF
  25. Nowak MA, K Tarczy-Hornoch, JM Austyn (1992). The optimal number of major histocompatibility complex molecules in an individual. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 10896-10899. PDF
  26. Payne RJH, MA Nowak, BS Blumberg (1992). Analysis of a cellular model to account for the natural history of infection by the hepatitis B virus and its role in the development of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. J theor Biol 159: 215-240. PDF
  27. Sheratt JA, MA Nowak (1992). Oncogenes, anti-oncogenes and the immune response to cancer: A mathematical model. Proc R Soc B 248: 261-271. PDF
  28. 1993

  29. Nowak MA, RM May (1993). AIDS pathogenesis: Mathematical models of HIV and SIV infections. AIDS 7: S3-S18. PDF
  30. Nowak MA, RM May (1993). The spatial dilemmas of evolution. Int J Bifurcat Chaos 3: 35-78. PDF
  31. Nowak MA, AR McLean (1993). Mathematical models for the pathogenesis of AIDS. In Mathematics Applied to Biology and Medicine, eds. J Demongeot, V Capasso. Winnepeg: Wuerz, 275-284.
  32. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1993). A strategy of win-stay, lose-shift that outperforms tit-for-tat in Prisoner's Dilemma. Nature 364: 56-58. PDF
  33. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1993). Chaos and the evolution of cooperation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 5091-5094. PDF
  34. 1994

  35. Berry RM, MA Nowak (1994). Defective escape mutants of HIV. J theor Biol 171: 387-395. PDF
  36. Bonhoeffer S, MA Nowak (1994). Intra-host versus inter-host selection: Viral strategies of immune function impairment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 8062-8066. PDF
  37. Bonhoeffer S, MA Nowak (1994). Mutation and the evolution of virulence. Proc R Soc B 258: 133-140. PDF
  38. May RM, MA Nowak (1994). Superinfection, metapopulation dynamics, and the evolution of diversity. J theor Biol 170: 95-114. PDF
  39. Moxon ER, PB Rainey, MA Nowak, RE Lenski (1994). Adaptive evolution of highly mutable loci in pathogenic bacteria. Curr Biol 4: 24-33. PDF
  40. Nowak MA (1994). The evolutionary dynamics of HIV infections. In First European Congress of Mathematics, Vol II, eds. A Joseph, F Mignot, F Murat, B Prum, R Rentschler. Basel: Birkhauser, 311-326.
  41. Nowak MA, S Bonhoeffer, RM May (1994). More spatial games. Int J Bifurcat Chaos 4: 33-56. PDF
  42. Nowak MA, S Bonhoeffer, RM May (1994). Spatial games and the maintenance of cooperation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 4877-4881. PDF
  43. Nowak MA, RM May (1994). Superinfection and the evolution of parasite virulence. Proc R Soc B 255: 81-89. PDF
  44. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1994). The alternating prisoner's dilemma. J theor Biol 168: 219-226. PDF
  45. Payne RJH, MA Nowak, BS Blumberg (1994). A cellular model to explain the pathogenesis of infection by the hepatitis B virus. Math Biosci 123: 25-58. PDF
  46. Tilman D, RM May, CL Lehman, MA Nowak (1994). Habitat destruction and the extinction debt. Nature 371: 65-66. PDF
  47. 1995

  48. Bonhoeffer S, EC Holmes, MA Nowak (1995). Causes of HIV diversity. Nature 376: 125. PDF
  49. Bonhoeffer S, EC Holmes, MA Nowak (1995). Varying selection pressure in HIV-1 infection. J Acq Immun Def Synd 10: 85.
  50. Bonhoeffer S, MA Nowak (1995). Can live attenuated virus work as post-exposure treatment? Immunol Today 16: 131-135. PDF
  51. Lipsitch M, EA Herre, MA Nowak (1995). Host population structure and the evolution of virulence: A "law of diminishing returns". Evolution 49: 743-748. PDF
  52. Lipsitch M, MA Nowak (1995). The evolution of virulence in sexually transmitted HIV/AIDS. J theor Biol 174: 427-440. PDF
  53. Lipsitch M, MA Nowak, D Ebert, RM May (1995). The population dynamics of vertically and horizontally transmitted parasites. Proc R Soc B 260: 321-327. PDF
  54. May RM, S Bonhoeffer, MA Nowak (1995). Spatial games and evolution of cooperation. In Advances in Artificial Life, eds. F Moran, A Moreno, J J Merelo, P Chacon. Berlin: Springer, 749-759.
  55. May RM, MA Nowak (1995). Coinfection and the evolution of parasite virulence. Proc R Soc B 261: 209-215. PDF
  56. McMichael AJ, S Rowland-Jones, P Klenerman, et al (1995). Epitope variation and T-cell recognition. J Cell Biochem Suppl S21A: 60.
  57. Nowak MA (1995). AIDS pathogenesis: From models to viral dynamics in patients. J Acq Immun Def Syn 10: S1-S5. PDF
  58. Nowak M (1995). Evolutionary dynamics of HIV infections. In Models for Infectious Human Diseases, eds.V Isham, G Medley. Cambridge University Press.
  59. Nowak MA, S Bonhoeffer, C Loveday, P Balfe, M Semple, S Kaye, M Tenant-Flowers, R Tedder (1995). HIV results in the frame: Results confirmed. Nature 375: 193. PDF
  60. Nowak MA, RM May, RE Phillips, S Rowland-Jones, DG Lalloo, S McAdam, P Klenerman, B Köppe, K Sigmund, CRM Bangham, AJ McMichael (1995). Antigenic oscillations and shifting immunodominance in HIV-1 infections. Nature 375: 606-611. PDF
  61. Nowak MA, RM May, K Sigmund (1995). Immune responses against multiple epitopes. J theor Biol 175: 325-353. PDF
  62. Nowak MA, RM May, K Sigmund (1995). The arithmetics of mutual help. Sci Am 272: 76-81. PDF
  63. Nowak MA, AJ McMichael (1995). How HIV defeats the immune system. Sci Am 273: 58-65. PDF
  64. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1995). Invasion dynamics of the finitely repeated prisoner's dilemma. Game Econ Behav 11: 364-390. PDF
  65. Nowak M, K Sigmund, E El-Sedy (1995). Automata, repeated games and noise. J Math Biol 33: 703-722. PDF
  66. Wei X, SK Ghosh, ME Taylor, VA Johnson, EA Emini, P Deutsch, JD Lifson, S Bonhoeffer, MA Nowak, BH Hahn, MS Saag, GM Shaw (1995). Viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Nature 373: 117-122. PDF
  67. 1996

  68. Antia R, MA Nowak, RM Anderson (1996). Antigenic variation and the within-host dynamics of parasites. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 985-989. PDF
  69. Boerlijst MC, S Bonhoeffer, MA Nowak (1996). Viral quasi-species and recombination. Proc R Soc B 263: 1577-1584. PDF
  70. Bonhoeffer S, AVM Herz, MC Boerlijst, S Nee, MA Nowak, RM May (1996). Explaining "linguistic features" of noncoding DNA. Science 271: 14-15. PDF
  71. Bonhoeffer S, AVM Herz, MC Boerlijst, MA Nowak, RM May (1996). No signs of hidden language in noncoding DNA. Phys Rev Lett 76: 1977. PDF
  72. Herz AVM, S Bonhoeffer, RM Anderson, RM May, MA Nowak (1996). Viral dynamics in vivo: Limitations on estimates of intracellular delay and virus decay. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 7247-7251. PDF
  73. Klenerman P, RE Phillips, CR Rinaldo, LM Wahl, RM May, AJ McMichael, MA Nowak (1996). Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and viral turnover in HIV type 1 infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 15323-15328. PDF
  74. Lipsitch M, S Siller, MA Nowak (1996). The evolution of virulence in pathogens with vertical and horizontal transmission. Evolution 50: 1729-1741. PDF
  75. McMichael AJ, P Goulder, S Rowland-Jones, MA Nowak, R Philips (1996). HIV escapes from cytotoxic lymphocytes. Immunology 89: 111. PDF
  76. Nowak MA (1996). Immune responses against multiple epitopes: A theory for immunodominance and antigenic variation. Semin Virol 7: 83-92. PDF
  77. Nowak MA, RM Anderson, MC Boerlijst, S Bonhoeffer, RM May, AJ McMichael (1996). HIV-1 evolution and disease progression. Science 274: 1008-1011. PDF
  78. Nowak MA, CRM Bangham (1996). Population dynamics of immune responses to persistent viruses. Science 272: 74-79. PDF
  79. Nowak MA, S Bonhoeffer, AM Hill, R Boehme, HC Thomas, H McDade (1996). Viral dynamics in hepatitis B virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 4398-4402. PDF
  80. Nowak MA, S Bonhoeffer, RM May (1996). Reply to Robustness of cooperation, A Mukherji, V Rajan, J Slagle. Nature 379: 126. PDF
  81. Payne RJH, MA Nowak, B Blumberg (1996). The dynamics of hepatitis B virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 6542-6546. PDF
  82. Stekel DJ, MA Nowak, TRE Southwood (1996). Prediction of future BSE spread. Nature 381: 119. PDF
  83. Tilman D, C Lehman, R May, M Nowak (1996). Reply to Species fragmentation or area loss? S Budiansky. Nature 382: 216. PDF
  84. 1997

  85. Bittner B, S Bonhoeffer, MA Nowak (1997). Virus load and antigenic diversity. B Math Biol 59: 881-896. PDF
  86. Boerlijst MC, MA Nowak, K Sigmund (1997). Equal pay for all prisoners. Am Math Mon 104: 303-305. PDF
  87. Boerlijst MC, MA Nowak, K Sigmund (1997). The logic of contrition. J theor Biol 185: 281-293. PDF
  88. Bonhoeffer S, J Coffin, MA Nowak (1997). Human immunodeficiency virus drug therapy and virus load. J Virol 71(4): 3275-3278. PDF
  89. Bonhoeffer S, RM May, GM Shaw, MA Nowak (1997). Virus dynamics and drug therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 6971-6976. PDF
  90. Bonhoeffer S, MA Nowak (1997). Pre-existence and emergence of drug resistance in HIV-1 infection. Proc R Soc B 264: 631-637. PDF
  91. Chun T-W, Stuyver L, Mizell S B, Ehler L A, Mican J A M, Baseler M, Lloyd A L, Nowak M A, Fauci A S (1997). Presence of an inducible HIV-1 latent reservoir during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 13193-13197. PDF
  92. Cooke J, MA Nowak, MC Boerlijst, J Maynard Smith (1997). Evolutionary origins and maintenance of redundant gene expression during metazoan development. Trends Genet 13: 360-364. PDF
  93. Goulder PJR, RE Phillips, RA Colbert, S McAdam, G Ogg, MA Nowak, P Giangrande, G Luzzi, B Morgan, A Edwards, AJ McMichael, S Rowland-Jones (1997). Late escape from an immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response associated with progression to AIDS. Nat Med 3: 212-217. PDF
  94. Goulder P, D Price, M Nowak, S Rowland-Jones, R Phillips, and A McMichael (1997). Co-evolution of human immunodeficiency virus and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. Immunol Rev 159: 17-29. PDF
  95. Lifson JD, MA Nowak, S Goldstein, JL Rossio, A Kinter, G Vasquez, TA Wiltrout, C Brown, D Schneider, L Wahl, AL Lloyd, J Williams, WR Elkins, AS Fauci, VM Hirsch (1997). The extent of early viral replication is a critical determinant of the natural history of simian immunodeficiency virus infection. J Virol 71: 9508-9514. PDF
  96. May RM, DJ Stekel, MA Nowak (1997). Antigenic diversity thresholds and hazard functions. Math Biosci 139: 59-68. PDF
  97. Nowak MA, MC Boerlijst, J Cooke, J Maynard Smith (1997). Evolution of genetic redundancy. Nature 388: 167-171. PDF
  98. Nowak MA, S Bonhoeffer, GM Shaw, RM May (1997). Anti-viral drug treatment: Dynamics of resistance in free virus and infected cell populations. J theor Biol 184: 203-217. PDF
  99. Nowak MA, AL Lloyd, G Vasquez, TA Wiltrout, LM Wahl, N Bischofsberger, J Williams, A Kinter, AS Fauci, VM Hirsch, JD Lifson (1997). Viral dynamics of primary viremia and antiretroviral therapy in simian immunodeficiency virus infection. J Virol 71: 7518-7525. PDF
  100. Sigmund K, MA Nowak (1997). The natural history of mutual aid: An eye for an eye, and a meal for a meal. In Wissenschaft als Kultur, ed. F Stadler. New York: Springer Verlag, 259-272.
  101. Stekel D, C Parker, MA Nowak (1997). A model of lymphocyte recirculation. Immunol Today 18: 216-221. PDF
  102. Wein LM, SA Zenios, MA Nowak (1997). Dynamic multidrug therapies for HIV: A control theoretic approach. J theor Biol 185: 15-29. PDF
  103. 1998

  104. Goh WC, ME Rogel, CM Kinsey, SF Michael, PN Fultz, MA Nowak, BH Hahn, M Emerman (1998). HIV-1 Vpr increases viral expression by manipulation of the cell cycle: A mechanism for selection of Vpr in vivo. Nat Med 4: 65-71. PDF
  105. Kilby JM, S Hopkins, T Venetta, B DiMassimo, GA Cloud, JY Lee, L Alldredge, E Hunter, D Lambert, D Bolognesi, T Matthews, L Carder, MR Johnson, MA Nowak, GM Shaw, MS Saag (1998). Potent suppression of HIV-1 replication in humans by T-20, a peptide inhibitor of gp-41 mediated virus entry. Nat Med 4: 1302-1307. PDF
  106. Levin BR, R Antia, E Berliner, P Bloland, S Bonhoeffer, M Cohen, T DeRouin, PI Fields, H Jafari, D Jernigan, M Lipsitch, JE McGowan, P Mead, M Nowak, T Porco, P Sykora, L Simmonsen, J Spitznagel, R Tauxe, F Tenover (1998). Resistance to antimicrobial chemotherapy: A prescription for research and action. Am J Med Sci 315: 87-94. PDF
  107. Nowak MA, DC Krakauer, A Klug, RM May (1998). Prion infection dynamics. Integr Biol 1: 3-15.<3::AID-INBI2>3.3.CO;2-0 PDF
  108. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1998). Darwins dynamik. DMV-Mitteilungen 4: 37-44. PDF
  109. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1998). Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoring. Nature 393: 573-577. PDF
  110. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1998). The dynamics of indirect reciprocity. J theor Biol 194: 561-574. PDF
  111. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1998). What two legs can learn from four legs. Book review of Foundations of Social Evolution, SA Frank; Cooperation Among Animals, AL Dugatkin. Nature 395: 760-761. PDF
  112. Ogg GS, X Jin, S Bonhoeffer, PR Dunbar, MA Nowak, S Monard, J Segal, Y Cao, SL Rowland-Jones, V Cerundolo, A Hurley, M Markowitz, DD Ho, DF Nixon, AJ McMichael (1998). Quantitation of HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and plasma load of viral RNA. Science 279: 2103-2106. PDF
  113. Ostrowski MA, DC Krakauer, Y Li, SJ Justement, G Learn, LA Ehler, SK Stanley, MA Nowak, AS Fauci (1998). Effect of immune activation on the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus replication and on the distribution of viral quasispecies. J Virol 72: 7772-7784. PDF
  114. Regoes RR, D Wodarz, MA Nowak (1998). Virus dynamics: The effect of target cell limitation and immune responses on virus evolution. J theor Biol 191: 451-462. PDF
  115. Ribeiro RM, S Bonhoeffer, MA Nowak (1998). The frequency of resistant mutant virus before antiviral therapy. AIDS 12: 461-465. PDF
  116. Sigmund K, M Boerlijst, MA Nowak (1998). Automata and inner states for repeated games. In Game Theory, Experience, Rationality, eds. W Leinfeller, E Koehler. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 131-139.
  117. Sigmund K, MA Nowak (1998). Cyber-sociology. Book review of The Complexity of Cooperation: Agent-Based Models of Competition and Collaboration, R Axelrod. Nature 392: 457. PDF
  118. Wodarz D, P Klenerman, MA Nowak (1998). Dynamics of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte exhaustion. Proc R Soc B 265: 191-203 . PDF
  119. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (1998). Mathematical models of virus dynamics and resistance. J HIV Ther 3: 36-41. PDF
  120. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (1998). The effect of different immune responses on the evolution of virulent CXCR4-tropic HIV. Proc R Soc B 265: 2149-2158. PDF
  121. 1999

  122. Arnaout RA, AL Lloyd, TR O'Brien, JJ Goedert, JM Leonard, MA Nowak (1999). A simple relationship between viral load and survival time in HIV-1 infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 11549-11553. PDF
  123. Bangham CRM, SE Hall, KJM Jeffery, AM Vine, A Witkover, MA Nowak, D Wodarz, K Ususku, M Osame (1999). Genetic control and dynamics of the cellular immune response to the human T-cell leukaemia virus, HTLV-I. Phil Trans R Soc B 354: 691-700. PDF
  124. Callaway DS, RM Ribeiro, MA Nowak (1999). Virus phenotype switching and disease progression in HIV-1 infection. Proc R Soc B 266: 2523-2530. PDF
  125. Hockett RD, JM Kilby, CA Derdeyn, MS Saag, M Sillers, K Squires, S Chiz, MA Nowak, GM Shaw, RP Bucy (1999). Constant mean viral copy number per infected cell in tissues regardless of high, low, or undetectable plasma HIV RNA. J Exp Med 189: 1545-1554. PDF
  126. Jefferey KJM, K Usuku, SE Hall, W Matsumoto, GP Taylor, J Proctor, M Bunce, GS Ogg, KI Welsh, JN Weber, AL Lloyd, MA Nowak, M Nagai, D Kodama, S Izumo, M Osame, CRM Bangham (1999). HLA alleles determine human T-lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I) proviral load and the risk of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 3848-3853. PDF
  127. Krakauer DC, MA Nowak (1999). Evolutionary preservation of redundant duplicated genes. Semin Cell Dev Biol 10: 555-559. PDF
  128. Krakauer DC, MA Nowak (1999). T-cell induced pathogenesis in HIV: Bystander effects and latent infection. Proc R Soc B 266: 1069-1075. PDF
  129. Masel J, VAA Jansen, MA Nowak (1999). Quantifying the kinetic parameters of prion replication. Biophys Chem 77: 139-152. PDF
  130. Nowak MA (1999). The mathematical biology of human infections. Conserv Ecol 3: 12. (online version)
  131. Nowak MA, DC Krakauer (1999). The evolution of language. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 8028-8033. PDF
  132. Nowak MA, DC Krakauer, A Dress (1999). An error limit for the evolution of language. Proc R Soc B 266: 2131-2136. PDF
  133. Nowak MA, J Plotkin, D Krakauer (1999). The evolutionary language game. J theor Biol 200: 147-162. PDF
  134. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1999). Aux racines de la coopération. Recherche 325: 38-39. PDF
  135. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (1999). Phage-lift for game theory. Nature 398: 367-368. PDF
  136. Ogg GS, X Jin, S Bonhoeffer, P Moss, MA Nowak, S Monard, JP Segal, Y Cao, SL Rowland-Jones, A Hurley, M Markowitz, DD Ho, AJ McMichael, DF Nixon (1999). Decay kinetics of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-specific effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes after combination antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 73: 797-800. PDF
  137. Sigmund K, MA Nowak (1999). Evolutionary game theory. Curr Biol 9: R503-R505. PDF
  138. Taylor GP, SE Hall, S Navarette, CA Michie, R Davis, AD Witkover, M Rossor, MA Nowak, P Rudge, E Matutes, CRM Bangham, JN Weber (1999). Effect of lamivudine on human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)  DNA copy number, T-cell phenotype, and anti-Tax cytotoxic T-cell frequency in patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. J Virol 73: 10289-10295. PDF
  139. Wahl LM, MA Nowak (1999). The continuous prisoner's dilemma: I. Linear reactive strategies. J theor Biol 200: 307-321. PDF
  140. Wahl LM, MA Nowak (1999). The continuous prisoner's dilemma: II. Linear reactive strategies with noise. J theor Biol 200: 323-338. PDF
  141. Wodarz D, AL Lloyd, VAA Jansen, MA Nowak (1999). Dynamics of macrophage and T cell infection by HIV. J theor Biol 196: 101-113. PDF
  142. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (1999). Dynamics of HIV pathogenesis and treatment. In Origin and Evolution of Viruses, eds. E Domingo, R Webster, J Holland. London: Academic Press, 197-223.
  143. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (1999). Dynamics of immune escape in HIV infection. Wien Klin Wochenschr 111: 419-427. PDF
  144. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (1999). Evolutionary dynamics of HIV-1 induced subversion of the immune response. Immunol Rev 168: 75-89. PDF
  145. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (1999). Specific therapy regimes could lead to long-term immunological control of HIV. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 14464-14469. PDF
  146. Wodarz D, MA Nowak, CRM Bangham (1999). The dynamics of HTLV-I and the CTL response. Immunol Today 20: 220-227. PDF
  147. 2000

  148. Arnaout R, MA Nowak (2000). Competitive coexistence in antiviral immunity. J theor Biol 204: 431-441. PDF
  149. Arnaout R, MA Nowak, D Wodarz (2000). HIV-1 dynamics revisited: Biphasic decay by cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing? Proc R Soc B 267: 1347-1354. PDF
  150. Barchet W, S Oehen, P Klenerman, D Wodarz, GA Bocharov, AL Lloyd, MA Nowak, H Hengartner, RM Zinkernagel, S Ehl (2000). Direct quantitation of rapid elimination of viral antigen-positive lymphocytes by antiviral CD8+ T cells in vivo. Eur J Immunol 30: 1356-1363. PDF
  151. Krakauer DC, MA Nowak (2000). Book review of Fragile Dominion: Complexity and the Commons, S Levin. Not Am Math Soc 47: 564-568. PDF
  152. Lifson JD, JL Rossio, R Arnaout, L Li, TL Parks, DM Schneider, RF Kiser, VJ Coalter, G Walsh,RJ Imming, B Fisher, BM Flynn, N Bischofsberger, M Piatak, VM Hirsch, MA Nowak, D Wodarz D (2000). Containment of simian immunodeficiency virus infection: Cellular immune responses and protection from rechallenge following transient post-inoculation antiretroviral treatment. J Virol 74: 2584-2593. PDF
  153. Nowak MA (2000). Evolutionary biology of language. Phil Trans R Soc B 355: 1615-1622. PDF
  154. Nowak MA (2000). Homo grammaticus. Nat Hist 109: 36-44. PDF
  155. Nowak MA (2000). The basic reproductive ratio of a word, the maximum size of a lexicon. J theor Biol 204: 179-189. PDF
  156. Nowak MA, RM May (2000). Virus Dynamics. Oxford University Press. ISBN: 9780198504177.
  157. Nowak MA, KM Page, K Sigmund (2000). Fairness versus reason in the ultimatum game. Science 289: 1773-1775. PDF
  158. Nowak MA, JB Plotkin, VAA Jansen (2000). The evolution of syntactic communication. Nature 404: 495-498. PDF
  159. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (2000). Cooperation versus competition. Financ Anal J 56: 13-22. PDF
  160. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (2000). Games on grids. In The Geometry of Ecological Interactions, eds. U Dieckmann, R Law, JAJ Metz. Cambridge University Press, 135-150. PDF
  161. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (2000). Shrewd investments. Science 288 (5467): 819-820. PDF
  162. Page KM, MA Nowak (2000). A generalized adaptive dynamics framework can explain the evolutionary ultimatum game. J theor Biol 209: 173-179. PDF
  163. Page KM, MA Nowak, K Sigmund (2000). The spatial ultimatum game. Proc R Soc B 267: 2177-2182." PDF
  164. Plotkin JB, MA Nowak (2000). Language evolution and information theory. J theor Biol 205: 147-159. PDF
  165. Plotkin JB, MD Potts, DW Yu, S Bunyavejchewin, R Condit, R Foster, S Hubbell, J LaFrankie, N Manokaran, L Hua Seng, R Sukumar, MA Nowak, PS Ashton (2000). Predicting species diversity in tropical forests. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 10850-10854. http:// 10.1073/pnas.97.20.10850 PDF
  166. Regoes RR, MA Nowak, S Bonhoeffer (2000). Evolution of virulence in a heterogeneous host population. Evolution 54: 64-71.[0064:EOVIAH]2.0.CO;2 PDF
  167. Sigmund K, MA Nowak (2000). A tale of two selves. Science 290: 949-950. PDF
  168. Sigmund K, MA Nowak (2000). Playing for keeps. Book review of Game Theory Evolving: A Problem-Centered Introduction to Modeling Strategic Interaction, H Gintis. Science 290: 281. PDF
  169. Trapa PE, MA Nowak (2000). Nash equilibria for an evolutionary language game. J Math Biol 41: 172-188. PDF
  170. Wahl LM, B Bittner, MA Nowak (2000). Immunological transitions in response to antigenic mutation during viral infection. Int Immunol 12: 1371-1380. PDF
  171. Wahl LM, MA Nowak (2000). Adherence and drug resistance: Predictions for therapy outcome. Proc R Soc B 267: 835-843. PDF
  172. Wodarz D, R Arnaout, MA Nowak, Lifson JD (2000). Transient antiretroviral treatment during acute simian immundeficiency virus infection facilitates long-term control of the virus. Phil Trans R Soc B 355: 1021-1029. PDF
  173. Wodarz D, RM May, MA Nowak (2000). The role of antigen-independent persistence of memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Int Immunol 12: 467-477. PDF
  174. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (2000). CD8 memory, immunodominance and antigenic escape. Eur J Immunol 30: 2704-2712.<2704::AID-IMMU2704>3.0.CO;2-0 PDF
  175. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (2000). Correlates of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated virus control: Implications for immuno-suppressive infections and their treatment. Phil Trans R Soc B 355: 1059-1070. PDF
  176. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (2000). HIV therapy: Managing resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 8193-8195. PDF
  177. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (2000). Immune responses and viral phenotype: Do replication rate and cytopathogenicity influence virus load? J Theor Med 2: 113-127. PDF
  178. Wodarz D, KM Page, RA Arnaout, AR Thomson, JD Lifson, MA Nowak (2000). A new theory of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte memory: Implications for HIV treatment. Phil Trans R Soc B 355: 329-343. PDF
  179. 2001

  180. Komarova NL, P Niyogi, MA Nowak (2001). The evolutionary dynamics of grammar acquisition. J theor Biol 209: 43-59. PDF
  181. Komarova NL, MA Nowak (2001). Natural selection of the critical period for language acquisition. Proc R Soc B 268: 1189-1196. PDF
  182. Komarova NL, MA Nowak (2001). Evolutionary dynamics of the lexical matrix. B Math Biol 63: 451-484. PDF
  183. Krakauer DC, MA Nowak (2001). Genetic redundancy. In Encyclopedia of Genetics, eds. S Brenner, J Miller. London: Academic Press, 845-846.
  184. Lifson JD, JL Rossio, M Piatak, T Parks, L Li, R Kiser, V Coalter, B Fisher, BM Flynn, VM Hirsch, RE Means, S Czajak, KA Reimann, JE Schmitz, J Ghrayeb, N Bischofsberger, MA Nowak, RC Desrosiers, D Wodarz (2001). Role of CD8+ lymphocytes in control of simian immunodeficiency virus infection and resistance to rechallenge after transient early antiretroviral treatment. J Virol 75: 10187-10199. PDF
  185. Nowak MA, NL Komarova (2001). Towards an evolutionary theory of language. Trends Cogn Sci 5: 288-295. PDF
  186. Nowak MA, NL Komarova, P Niyogi (2001). Evolution of universal grammar. Science 291: 114-118. PDF
  187. Plotkin JB, MA Nowak (2001). Major transitions in language evolution. Entropy 3: 227-246. PDF
  188. Sigmund K, C Hauert, MA Nowak (2001). Reward and punishment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 10757-10762. PDF
  189. Sigmund K, MA Nowak (2001). Tides of tolerence. Nature 414: 403-405. PDF
  190. Wodarz D, SE Hall, K Usuku, M Osame, GS Ogg, AJ McMichael, MA Nowak, CRM Bangham (2001). Cytotoxic T-cell abundance and virus load in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1. Proc R Soc B 268: 1215-1221. PDF
  191. 2002

  192. Belz GT, D Wodarz, G Diaz, MA Nowak, PC Doherty (2002). Compromised influenza virus-specific CD8+-T-cell memory in CD4+-T-cell-deficient mice. J Virol 76: 12388-12393. PDF
  193. Komarova NL, C Lengauer, B Vogelstein, MA Nowak (2002). Dynamics of genetic instability in sporadic and familial colorectal cancer. Cancer Biol Ther 1: 685-692. PDF
  194. Komarova NL, MA Nowak (2002). Population dynamics of grammar acquisition. In Simulating the Evolution of Language, eds. A Cangelosi, D Parisi. London: Springer Verlag, 149-163.
  195. Michor F, MA Nowak (2002). Evolution: The good, the bad and the lonely. Nature 419: 677-679. PDF
  196. Michor F, MA Nowak (2002). Immunology tomorrow. Book review of Immunology and Evolution of Infectious Disease, SA Frank. Nature 420: 741-742. PDF
  197. Nowak MA (2002). From quasispecies to universal grammar. Z Phys Chem 216: 5-20. PDF
  198. Nowak MA, NL Komarova, P Niyogi (2002). Computational and evolutionary aspects of language. Nature 417: 611-617. PDF
  199. Nowak MA, NL Komarova, A Sengupta, PF Jallepalli, IM Shih, B Vogelstein, C Lengauer (2002). The role of chromosomal instability in tumor initiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 16226-16231. PDF
  200. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (2002). Biodiversity: Bacterial game dynamics. Nature 418: 138-139. PDF
  201. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (2002). Super- and coinfection: The two extremes. In Adaptive Dynamics of Infectious Diseases: In Pursuit of Virulence Management, eds. U Dieckmann, JAJ Metz, M Sabelis, K Sigmund. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 124-138. PDF
  202. Page KM, MA Nowak (2002). Empathy leads to fairness. B Math Biol 64: 1101-1116. PDF
  203. Page KM, MA Nowak (2002). Unifying evolutionary dynamics. J theor Biol 219: 93-98. PDF
  204. Plotkin JB, MA Nowak (2002). The different effects of apoptosis and DNA repair on tumorigenesis. J theor Biol 214: 453-467. PDF
  205. Sigmund K, E Fehr, MA Nowak (2002). The economics of fair play. Sci Am 286: 82-87. PDF
  206. Wodarz D, MA Nowak (2002). Mathematical models of HIV pathogenesis and treatment. Bioessays 24: 1178-1187. PDF
  207. 2003

  208. Frank SA, Y Iwasa, MA Nowak (2003). Patterns of cell division and the risk of cancer. Genetics 163: 1527-1532. PDF
  209. Frank SA, MA Nowak (2003). Developmental predisposition to cancer. Nature 422: 494. PDF
  210. Iwasa Y, F Michor, Nowak MA (2003). Evolutionary dynamics of escape from biomedical intervention. Proc R Soc B 270: 2573-2578. PDF
  211. Komarova NL, MA Nowak (2003). Language dynamics in finite populations. J theor Biol 221: 445-457. PDF
  212. Komarova NL, MA Nowak (2003). Language, learning and evolution. In Language Evolution, eds. MH Christiansen, S Kirby. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 317-337.
  213. Komarova NL, A Sengupta, MA Nowak (2003). Mutation-selection networks of cancer initiation: Tumor suppressor genes and chromosomal instability. J theor Biol 223: 433-450. PDF
  214. Michor F, SA Frank, RM May, Y Iwasa, MA Nowak (2003). Somatic selection for and against cancer. J theor Biol 225: 377-382. PDF
  215. Michor F, Y Iwasa, NL Komarova, MA Nowak (2003). Local regulation of homeostasis favors chromosomal instability. Curr Biol 13: 581-584. PDF
  216. Michor F, MA Nowak, SA Frank, Y Iwasa (2003). Stochastic elimination of cancer cells. Proc R Soc B 270: 2017-2024. PDF
  217. Mitchener G, MA Nowak (2003). Competitive exclusion and coexistence of universal grammars. B Math Biol 65: 67-93. PDF
  218. Nowak MA, F Michor, Y Iwasa (2003). The linear process of somatic evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100: 14966-14969. PDF
  219. Rajagopalan H, MA Nowak, B Vogelstein, C Lengauer (2003). The significance of unstable chromosomes in colorectal cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 3: 695-701. PDF
  220. Sasaki A, MA Nowak (2003). Mutation landscapes. J theor Biol 224: 241-247. PDF
  221. Wei X, JM Decker, S Wang, H Hui, JC Kappes, W Xiaoyun, JF Salazar, MG Salazar, JM Kilby, MS Saag, NL Komarova, MA Nowak, BH Hahn, PD Kwong, GM Shaw (2003). Antibody neutralization and escape by HIV-1. Nature 422: 307-312. PDF
  222. 2004

  223. Frank SA, MA Nowak(2004). Problems of somatic mutation and cancer. Bioessays 26 (3): 291-299. PDF
  224. Iwasa Y, F Michor, MA Nowak (2004). Evolutionary dynamics of invasion and escape. J theor Biol 226 (2): 205-214. PDF
  225. Iwasa Y, F Michor, MA Nowak (2004). Some basic properties of immune selection. J theor Biol 229 (2): 179-188. PDF.
  226. Iwasa Y, F Michor, MA Nowak (2004). Stochastic tunnels in evolutionary dynamics. Genetics 166 (3): 1571-1579. PDF
  227. Jones NA, X Wei, DR Flower, ML Wong, F Michor, MS Saag, BH Hahn, MA Nowak, GM Shaw, P Borrow (2004). Determinants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 escape from the primary CD8+ cytotoxic Y lymphocyte response. J Exp Med 200 (10): 1243-1256. PDF
  228. Matsen E, MA Nowak (2004). Win-stay, lose-shift in language learning from peers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101 (52): 18053-18057. PDF
  229. Michor F, Y Iwasa, MA Nowak (2004). Dynamics of cancer progression. Nat Rev Cancer 4 (3): 197-205. PDF
  230. Michor F, Y Iwasa, H Rajagopalan, C Lengauer, MA Nowak (2004). Linear model of colon cancer initiation. Cell Cycle 3 (3): 358-362. PDF
  231. Mitchener WG, MA Nowak (2004). Chaos and language. Proc R Soc B 271 (1540): 701-704. PDF
  232. Nowak MA (2004). Prisoners of the dilemma. Nature 427 (6974): 491. PDF
  233. Nowak MA (2004). Theory is available light. Curr Biol 14 (11): R406-R407. PDF
  234. Nowak MA, F Michor, NL Komarova, Y Iwasa (2004). Evolutionary dynamics of tumor suppressor gene inactivation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101 (29): 10635-10638. PDF
  235. Nowak MA, A Sasaki, C Taylor, D Fudenberg (2004). Emergence of cooperation and evolutionary stability in finite populations. Nature 428 (6983): 646-650. PDF
  236. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (2004). Evolutionary dynamics of biological games. Science 303 (5659): 793-799. PDF
  237. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (2004). Population dynamics in evolutionary ecology. In Life Sciences for the 21st Century, eds. E Keinan, I Schechter, M Sela. Weinham: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.
  238. Taylor C, D Fudenberg, A Sasaki, MA Nowak (2004). Evolutionary game dynamics in finite populations. B Math Biol 66 (6): 1621-1644. PDF
  239. 2005

  240. Imhof LA, D Fudenberg, MA Nowak (2005). Evolutionary cycles of cooperation and defection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102 (31): 10797-10800. PDF
  241. Iwasa Y, F Michor, NL Komarova, MA Nowak (2005). Population genetics of tumor suppressor genes. J theor Biol 233 (1): 15-23. PDF
  242. Iwasa Y, F Michor, MA Nowak (2005). Virus evolution within patients increases pathogenicity. J theor Biol 232 (1): 17-26. PDF
  243. Lieberman E, C Hauert, MA Nowak (2005). Evolutionary dynamics on graphs. Nature 433 (7023): 312-316. PDF
  244. Michor F, TP Hughes, Y Iwasa, S Branford, NP Shah, CL Sawyers, MA Nowak (2005). Dynamics of chronic myeloid leukaemia. Nature 435 (7046): 1267-1270. PDF
  245. Michor F, Y Iwasa, C Lengauer, MA Nowak (2005). Dynamics of colorectal cancer. Semin Cancer Biol 15 (6): 484-493. PDF
  246. Michor F, Y Iwasa, B Vogelstein, C Lengauer, MA Nowak (2005). Can chromosomal instability initiate tumorigenesis? Semin Cancer Biol 15 (1): 43-45. PDF
  247. Nowak MA, NL Komarova (2005). The evolution of altruism: From game theory to human language. In Spiritual Information, ed. CL Harper Jr. Templeton Foundation Press, 308-314.
  248. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (2005). Evolution of indirect reciprocity. Nature 437 (7063): 1291-1298. PDF
  249. Traulsen A, A Sengupta, MA Nowak (2005). Stochastic evolutionary dynamics on two levels. J theor Biol 235 (3): 393-401. PDF
  250. Willensdorfer M, MA Nowak (2005). Mutation in evolutionary games can increase average fitness at equilibrium. J theor Biol 237 (4): 355-362. PDF
  251. 2006

  252. Bürger R, M Willensdorfer, MA Nowak (2006). Why are phenotypic mutation rates much higher than genotypic mutation rates? Genetics 172 (1): 197-206. PDF
  253. Dingli D, MA Nowak (2006). Cancer biology: Infectious tumour cells. Nature 443 (7107): 35-36. PDF
  254. Fudenberg D, MA Nowak, C Taylor, LA Imhof (2006). Evolutionary game dynamics in finite populations with strong selection and weak mutation. Theor Popul Biol 70 (3): 352-363. PDF
  255. Hauert C, F Michor, MA Nowak, M Doebeli (2006). Synergy and discounting of cooperation in social dilemmas. J theor Biol 239 (2): 195-202. PDF
  256. Imhof LA, MA Nowak (2006). Evolutionary game dynamics in a Wright-Fisher process. J Math Biol 52 (5): 667-681. PDF
  257. Iwasa Y, MA Nowak, F Michor (2006). Evolution of resistance during clonal expansion. Genetics 172 (4): 2557-2566. PDF
  258. Michor F, Y Iwasa, MA Nowak (2006). The age incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia can be explained by a one-mutation model. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103 (40): 14931-14934. PDF
  259. Michor F, MA Nowak, Y Iwasa (2006). Evolution of resistance to cancer therapy. Curr Pharm Design 12 (3): 261-271. PDF
  260. Michor F, MA Nowak, Y Iwasa (2006). Stochastic dynamics of metastasis formation. J theor Biol 240 (4): 521-530. PDF
  261. Nowak, MA (2006). Evolutionary Dynamics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN: 9780674023383.
  262. Nowak MA (2006). Five rules for the evolution of cooperation. Science 314 (5805): 1560-1563. PDF
  263. Nowak MA, F Michor, Y Iwasa (2006). Genetic instability and clonal expansion. J theor Biol 241 (1): 26-32. PDF
  264. Ohtsuki H, C Hauert, E Lieberman, MA Nowak (2006). A simple rule for the evolution of cooperation on graphs and social networks. Nature 441 (7092): 502-505. PDF
  265. Ohtsuki H, MA Nowak (2006). Evolutionary games on cycles. Proc R Soc B 273 (1598): 2249-2256. PDF
  266. Ohtsuki H, MA Nowak (2006). The replicator equation on graphs. J theor Biol 243 (1): 86-97. PDF
  267. Pacheco JM, A Traulsen, MA Nowak (2006). Active linking in evolutionary games. J theor Biol 243 (3): 437-443. PDF
  268. Pacheco JM, A Traulsen, MA Nowak (2006). Coevolution of strategy and structure in complex networks with dynamical linking. Phys Rev Lett 97 (25): 258103. PDF
  269. Pfeiffer T, MA Nowak (2006). Climate change: All in the game. Nature 441 (7093): 583-584. PDF
  270. Pfeiffer T, MA Nowak (2006). Digital cows grazing on digital grounds. Curr Biol 16 (22): R946-R949. PDF
  271. Taylor C, Y Iwasa, MA Nowak (2006). A symmetry of fixation times in evolutionary dynamics. J theor Biol 243 (2): 245-251. PDF
  272. Taylor C, MA Nowak (2006). Evolutionary game dynamics with non-uniform interaction rates. Theor Popul Biol 69 (3): 243-252. PDF
  273. Traulsen A, MA Nowak (2006). Evolution of cooperation by multilevel selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103 (29): 10952-10955. PDF
  274. Traulsen A, MA Nowak, JM Pacheco (2006). Stochastic dynamics of invasion and fixation. Phys Rev E 74 (1): 011909. PDF
  275. 2007

  276. Beerenwinkel N, T Antal, D Dingli, A Traulsen, KW Kinzler, VE Velculescu, B Vogelstein, MA Nowak (2007). Genetic progression and the waiting time to cancer. PLoS Comput Biol 3 (11): e225. PDF
  277. Hauert C, A Traulsen, H Brandt, MA Nowak, K Sigmund (2007). Via freedom to coercion: The emergence of costly punishment. Science 316 (5833): 1905-1907. PDF
  278. Imhof LA, D Fudenberg, MA Nowak (2007). Tit-for-tat or win-stay, lose-shift? J theor Biol 247 (3): 574-580. PDF
  279. Iwasa Y, F Michor, MA Nowak (2007). Directional evolution of virus within a host under immune selection. In Mathematics for Life Science and Medicine, eds.Y Takeuchi, Y Iwasa, K Sato. Springer: New York.
  280. Lieberman E, JB Michel, J Jackson, T Tang, MA Nowak (2007). Quantifying the evolutionary dynamics of language. Nature 449 (7163): 713-716. PDF
  281. Nowak MA, S Roch (2007). Upstream reciprocity and the evolution of gratitude. Proc R Soc B 274 (1610): 605-609. PDF
  282. Nowak MA, K Sigmund (2007). How populations cohere: Five rules for cooperation. In Theoretical Ecology: Principles and Applications, eds. RM May, A McLean. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 7-16. PDF
  283. Ohtsuki H, P Bordalo, MA Nowak (2007). The one third law of evolutionary dynamics. J theor Biol 249 (2): 289-295. PDF
  284. Ohtsuki H, MA Nowak (2007). Direct reciprocity on graphs. J theor Biol 247 (3): 462-470. PDF
  285. Ohtsuki H, MA Nowak, JM Pacheco (2007). Breaking the symmetry between interaction and replacement in evolutionary dynamics on graphs. Phys Rev Lett 98 (10): 108106. PDF
  286. Ohtsuki H, JM Pacheco, MA Nowak (2007). Evolutionary graph theory: Breaking the symmetry between interaction and replacement. J theor Biol 246 (4): 681-694. PDF
  287. Taylor C, MA Nowak (2007). Transforming the dilemma. Evolution 61 (10): 2281-2292. PDF
  288. Traulsen A, Y Iwasa, MA Nowak (2007). The fastest evolutionary trajectory. J theor Biol 249 (3): 617-623. PDF
  289. Traulsen A, MA Nowak (2007). Chromodynamics of cooperation in finite populations. PLoS ONE 2 (3): e270. PDF
  290. Traulsen A, MA Nowak, JM Pacheco (2007). Stochastic payoff evaluation increases the temperature of selection. J theor Biol 244 (2): 349-356. PDF
  291. Traulsen A, JM Pacheco, MA Nowak (2007). Pairwise comparison and selection temperature in evolutionary game dynamics. J theor Biol 246 (3): 522-529. PDF
  292. Willensdorfer M, R Bürger, MA Nowak (2007). Phenotypic mutation rates and the abundance of abnormal proteins in yeast. PLoS Comput Biol 3 (11): e203. PDF
  293. 2008

  294. Dingli D, MA Nowak (2008). Evolutionary dynamics of cancer. Book review of Dynamics of Cancer: Incidence, Inheritance, and Evolution, SA Frank. Trends Ecol Evol 23 (5): 254-255. PDF
  295. Dreber A, MA Nowak (2008). Gambling for global goods. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105 (7): 2261-2262. PDF
  296. Dreber A, DG Rand, D Fudenberg, MA Nowak (2008). Winners don't punish. Nature 452 (7185): 348-351. PDF
  297. Fu F, C Hauert, MA Nowak, L Wang (2008). Reputation-based partner choice promotes cooperation in social networks. Phys Rev E 78 (2): 026117. PDF appears in Vir J Bio Phys Res 16 (5).
  298. Hauert C, A Traulsen, H Brandt, MA Nowak, K Sigmund (2008). Public goods with punishment and abstaining in finite and infinite populations. Biological Theory 3 (2): 114–122. PDF
  299. Jones S, W Chen, G Parmigiani, F Diehl, N Beerenwinkel, T Antal, A Traulsen, MA Nowak, C Siegel, VE Velculescu, KW Kinzler, B Vogelstein, J Willis, SD Markowitz (2008). Comparative lesion sequencing provides insights into tumor evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105 (11): 4283-4288. PDF
  300. Langer P, MA Nowak, C Hauert (2008). Spatial invasion of cooperation. J theor Biol 250 (4): 634-641. PDF
  301. Nowak MA (2008). Generosity: A winner's advice. Nature 456 (7222): 579. PDF
  302. Nowak MA, H Ohtsuki (2008). Prevolutionary dynamics and the origin of evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105 (39): 14924-14927. PDF
  303. Ohtsuki H, MA Nowak (2008). Evolutionary stability on graphs. J theor Biol 251 (4): 698-707. PDF
  304. Pacheco JM, A Traulsen, H Ohtsuki, MA Nowak (2008). Repeated games and direct reciprocity under active linking. J theor Biol 250 (4): 723-731. PDF
  305. Pinker S, MA Nowak, JJ Lee (2008). The logic of indirect speech. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105 (3): 833-838. PDF
  306. Traulsen A, N Shoresh, MA Nowak (2008). Analytical results for individual and group selection of any intensity. B Math Biol 70 (5): 1410-1424. PDF
  307. 2009

  308. Antal T, MA Nowak, A Traulsen (2009). Strategy abundance in 2x2 games for arbitrary mutation rates. J theor Biol 257 (2): 340-344. PDF
  309. Antal T, H Ohtsuki, J Wakeley, PD Taylor, MA Nowak (2009). Evolution of cooperation by phenotypic similarity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106 (21): 8597-8600. PDF
  310. Antal T, A Traulsen, H Ohtsuki, CE Tarnita, MA Nowak (2009). Mutation–selection equilibrium in games with multiple strategies. J theor Biol 258 (4): 614-622. PDF
  311. Fu F, L Wang, MA Nowak, C Hauert (2009). Evolutionary dynamics on graphs: Efficient method for weak selection. Phys Rev E 79 (4): 046707. PDF
  312. Gokhale CS, Y Iwasa, MA Nowak, A Traulsen (2009). The pace of evolution across fitness valleys. J theor Biol 259 (3): 613-620. PDF
  313. Manapat M, H Ohtsuki, R Bürger, MA Nowak (2009). Originator dynamics. J theor Biol 256 (4): 586–595. PDF
  314. Nathanson CG, CE Tarnita, MA Nowak (2009). Calculating evolutionary dynamics in structured populations. PLoS Comput Biol 5 (12): e1000615. PDF
    Nathanson CG, Tarnita CE, Nowak MA, (2010) Correction: Calculating Evolutionary Dynamics in Structured Populations. PLoS Comput Biol 6 (1):
  315. Ohtsuki H, Y Iwasa, MA Nowak (2009). Indirect reciprocity provides only a narrow margin of efficiency for costly punishment. Nature 457 (7225): 79-82. PDF
  316. Ohtsuki H, MA Nowak (2009). Prelife catalysts and replicators. Proc R Soc B 276 (1674): 3783-3790. PDF
  317. Rand DG, A Dreber, T Ellingsen, D Fudenberg, MA Nowak (2009). Positive interactions promote public cooperation. Science 325 (5945): 1272-1275. PDF
  318. Rand DG, MA Nowak (2009). Name and shame. New Scientist 204 (2734): 28–29. PDF
  319. Rand DG, H Ohtsuki, MA Nowak (2009). Direct reciprocity with costly punishment: Generous tit-for-tat prevails. J theor Biol 256 (1): 45-57. PDF
  320. Tarnita CE, T Antal, MA Nowak (2009). Mutation-selection equilibrium in games with mixed strategies. J theor Biol 261 (1): 50-57. PDF
  321. Tarnita CE, T Antal, H Ohtsuki, MA Nowak (2009). Evolutionary dynamics in set structured populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106 (21): 8601-8604. PDF
  322. Tarnita CE, H Ohtsuki,T Antal, F Fu, MA Nowak (2009). Strategy selection in structured populations. J theor Biol 259 (3): 570-581. PDF
  323. Taylor C, MA Nowak (2009). How to evolve cooperation. pages 41-56. In Games, Groups, and the Global Good, ed. S Levin. New York: Springer.
  324. Traulsen A, C Hauert, H Brandt De Silva, MA Nowak, K Sigmund (2009). Exploration dynamics in evolutionary games. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106 (3): 709-712. PDF
  325. Wakano JY, MA Nowak, C Hauert (2009). Spatial dynamics of ecological public goods. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106 (19): 7910-7914. PDF
  326. 2010

  327. Bozic I, T Antal, H Ohtsuki, H Carter, D Kim, S Chen, R Karchin, KW Kinzler, B Vogelstein, MA Nowak (2010). Accumulation of driver and passenger mutations during tumor progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107 (43): 18545–18550. PDF
  328. Fu F, MA Nowak, C Hauert (2010). Invasion and expansion of cooperators in lattice populations: Prisoner's dilemma vs. Snowdrift games. J theor Biol 266 (3): 358–366. PDF
  329. Hill AL, DG Rand, MA Nowak, NA Christakis (2010). Emotions as infectious diseases in a large social network: the SISa model. Proc R Soc B 277 (1701): 3827-3835. PDF
  330. Hill AL, DG Rand, MA Nowak, NA Christakis (2010). Infectious disease modeling of social contagion in networks. PLoS Comput Biol 6 (11): e1000968. PDF
  331. Imhof LA, MA Nowak (2010). Stochastic evolutionary dynamics of direct reciprocity. Proc R Soc B 277 (1680): 463-468. PDF
  332. Manapat ML, IA Chen, MA Nowak (2010). The basic reproductive ratio of life. J theor Biol 263 (3): 317-327. PDF
  333. Nowak MA, CE Tarnita, T Antal (2010). Evolutionary dynamics in structured populations. Phil Trans R Soc B 365 (1537): 19-30. PDF
  334. Nowak MA, CE Tarnita, EO Wilson (2010). The evolution of eusociality. Nature 466 (7310): 1057-1062. PDF
  335. Ojosnegros S, N Beerenwinkel, T Antal, MA Nowak, C Escarmis, E Domingo (2010). Competition-colonization dynamics in an RNA virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107 (5): 2108-2112. PDF
  336. Rajamani S, JK Ichida, T Antal, DA Treco, K Leu, MA Nowak, JW Szostak, IA Chen (2010). Effect of stalling after mismatches on the error catastrophe in nonenzymatic nucleic acid replication. J Am Chem Soc 132 (16): 5880–5885.  PDF
  337. Yachida S, S Jones, I Bozic, T Antal, R Leary, B Fu, M Kamiyama, RH Hruban, JR Eshleman, MA Nowak, VE Velculescu, KW Kinzler, B Vogelstein, CA Iacobuzio-Donahue (2010). Distant metastasis occurs late during the genetic evolution of pancreatic cancer. Nature 467 (7319): 1114–1117. PDF
  338. 2011

  339. Beale N, DG Rand, H Battey, K Croxson, RM May, MA Nowak (2011). Individual versus systemic risk and the Regulator's Dilemma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108 (31): 12647-12652. PDF
  340. Fu F, DI Rosenbloom, L Wang, MA Nowak (2011). Imitation dynamics of vaccination behaviour on social networks. Proc R Soc B 278 (1702): 42-49. PDF
  341. Michel JB, YK Shen, A Presser Aiden, A Veres, MK Gray, The Google Books Team, JP Pickett, D Hoiberg, D Clancy, P Norvig, J Orwant, S Pinker, MA Nowak, E Lieberman Aiden (2011). Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books. Science 331 (6014): 176-182. PDF
  342. Nowak MA, Highfield R (2011). SuperCooperators: Why We Need Each Other to Succeed. Simon & Schuster. ISBN: 9781451626636.
  343. Nowak MA, CE Tarnita, EO Wilson (2011). Nowak et al. reply. Nature 471 (7339): E9-E10. PDF
  344. Rand DG, MA Nowak (2011). The evolution of antisocial punishment in optional public goods games. Nat Commun 2: 434. PDF
  345. Tarnita CE, N Wage, MA Nowak (2011). Multiple strategies in structured populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108 (6): 2334-2337. PDF
  346. van Veelen M, MA Nowak (2011). Evolution: Selection for positive illusions. Nature 477 (7364): 282-283. PDF     Spektrum der Wissenschaft     German
  347. 2012

  348. Allen B, MA Nowak (2012). Evolutionary shift dynamics on a cycle. J theor Biol 311: 28-39. PDF
  349. Allen B, A Traulsen, CE Tarnita, MA Nowak (2012). How mutation affects evolutionary games on graphs. J theor Biol 299: 97-105. PDF
  350. Bozic I, B Allen, MA Nowak (2012). Dynamics of targeted cancer therapy. Trends Mol Med 18 (6): 311-316. PDF
  351. Cavaliere M, S Sedwards, CE Tarnita, MA Nowak, A Csikász-Nagy (2012). Prosperity is associated with instability in dynamical networks. J theor Biol 299: 126-138. PDF
  352. Chatterjee K, JG Reiter, MA Nowak (2012). Evolutionary dynamics of biological auctions. Theor Popul Biol 81 (1): 69-80. PDF
  353. Chatterjee K, D Zufferey, MA Nowak (2012). Evolutionary game dynamics in populations with different learners. J theor Biol 301: 161-173. PDF
  354. Chen I, MA Nowak (2012). From prelife to life: how chemical kinetics become evolutionary dynamics. Acc Chem Res 45 (12): 2088-2096. PDF
  355. Derr J, ML Manapat, S Rajamani, K Leu, R Xulvi-Brunet, I Joseph, MA Nowak, IA Chen (2012). Prebiotically plausible mechanisms increase compositional diversity of nucleic acid sequences. Nucl Acids Res 40 (10): 4711-4722. PDF
  356. Diaz LA Jr., RT Williams, J Wu, I Kinde, JR Hecht, J Berlin, B Allen, I Bozic, JG Reiter, MA Nowak, KW Kinzler, KS Oliner, B Vogelstein (2012). The molecular evolution of acquired resistance to targeted EGFR blockade in colorectal cancers. Nature 486 (7404): 537-540. PDF
  357. Fu F, MA Nowak, NA Christakis, JH Fowler (2012). The evolution of homophily. Sci Rep 2: 845. PDF
  358. Fu F, CE Tarnita, NA Christakis, L Wang, DG Rand, MA Nowak (2012). Evolution of in-group favoritism. Sci Rep 2: 460. PDF
  359. Hill AL, DIS Rosenbloom, MA Nowak (2012). Evolutionary dynamics of HIV at multiple spatial and temporal scales. J Mol Med 90 (5): 543-561. PDF
  360. Manapat ML, DG Rand, C Pawlowitsch, MA Nowak (2012). Stochastic evolutionary dynamics resolve the Traveler's Dilemma. J theor Biol 303: 119-127. PDF
  361. Nowak MA (2012). Evolving cooperation. J theor Biol 299: 1-8. PDF
  362. Nowak MA (2012). Why we help. Sci Am 307 (1): 34-39. PDF
  363. Rand DG, JD Greene, MA Nowak (2012). Spontaneous giving and calculated greed. Nature 489 (7416): 427-430. PDF
  364. Rand DG, MA Nowak (2012). Evolutionary dynamics in finite populations can explain the full range of cooperative behaviors observed in the centipede game. J theor Biol 300: 212-221. PDF
  365. Rosenbloom DIS, AL Hill, SA Rabi, RF Siliciano, MA Nowak (2012). Antiretroviral dynamics determines HIV evolution and predicts therapy outcome. Nature Medicine 18 (9): 1378-1385. PDF
  366. van Gestel J, MA Nowak, CE Tarnita (2012). The evolution of cell-to-cell communication in a sporulating bacterium. PLoS Comput Biol 8 (12): e1002818. PDF
  367. van Veelen M, J García, DG Rand, MA Nowak (2012). Direct reciprocity in structured populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109 (25): 9929-9934. PDF
  368. van Veelen M, MA Nowak (2012). Multi-player games on the cycle. J theor Biol 292: 116-128. PDF
  369. 2013

  370. Allen B, J Gore, MA Nowak (2013). Spatial dilemmas of diffusible public goods. eLife 2: e01169.
  371. Allen B, MA Nowak (2013). Cooperation and the fate of microbial societies. PLoS Biol 11 (4): e1001549. PDF
  372. Allen B, MA Nowak (2013). O Brave New World with Such Games. Science 341 (6148): 844-844. PDF
  373. Allen B, MA Nowak, U Dieckmann (2013). Adaptive dynamics with interaction structure. Am Nat 181 (6): E139-E163.
  374. Allen B, MA Nowak, EO Wilson (2013). Limitations of inclusive fitness. PNAS 110(50): 20135-20139. PDF
  375. Bianconi G, K Zhao, I Chen, MA Nowak (2013). Selection for replicases in protocells. PLoS Comput Biol 9 (5): e1003051. PDF
  376. Bozic I, MA Nowak (2013). Unwanted Evolution. Science 342 (6161): 938-939. PDF
  377. Bozic I, JG Reiter, B Allen, T Antal, K Chatterjee, P Shah, YS Moon, A Yaqubie, N Kelly, DT Le, EJ Lipson, PB Chapman, LA Diaz Jr., B Vogelstein, MA Nowak (2013). Evolutionary dynamics of cancer in response to targeted combination therapy. eLife 2: e00747. PDF
  378. Coakley S, MA Nowak, eds (2013). Evolution, Games, and God: The Principle of Cooperation. Harvard University Press. ISBN: 9780674047976.
  379. Fu F, MA Nowak (2013). Global migration can lead to stronger spatial selection than local migration. J Stat Phys 151 (3-4): 637-653. PDF
  380. Hilbe C, MA Nowak, K Sigmund (2013). Evolution of extortion in iterated Prisoner's Dilemma games. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110 (17): 6913–6918. PDF
  381. Hilbe C, MA Nowak, A Traulsen (2013). Adaptive dynamics of extortion and compliance. PLoS One 8 (11): e77886. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077886 PDF
  382. Manapat ML, MA Nowak, DG Rand (2013). Information, irrationality, and the evolution of trust. J Econ Behav Organ 90 (Suppl): S57–S75. PDF
  383. Novak S, K Chatterjee, MA Nowak (2013). Density games. J theor Biol 334: 26-34. PDF
  384. Randles AP, DG Rand, C Lee, G Morrisett, J Sircar, MA Nowak, H Pfister (2013). Massively parallel model of extended memory use in evolutionary game dynamics. IPDPS: 1217-1228. PDF
  385. Rand DG, JD Greene, MA Nowak (2013). Rand et al. reply. Nature 498 (7452): E2-E3. PDF
  386. Rand DG, MA Nowak (2013). Human cooperation. Trends Cogn Sci 17 (8): 413-425. PDF
  387. Rand DG, CE Tarnita, H Ohtsuki, MA Nowak (2013). Evolution of fairness in the one-shot anonymous Ultimatum Game. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110 (7): 2581-2586. PDF
  388. Reiter JG, I Bozic, B Allen, K Chatterjee, MA Nowak (2013). The effect of one additional driver mutation on tumor progression. Evol Appl 6 (1): 34-45. PDF
  389. Reiter JG, I Bozic, K Chatterjee, MA Nowak (2013). TTP: Tool for Tumor Progression. Lect Notes Comput Sc 8044: 101-106. PDF
  390. Suchow JW, B Allen, MA Nowak, GA Alvarez (2013). Evolutionary dynamics of visual memory. J Vis 13 (9): 20.
  391. Tarnita CE, CH Taubes, MA Nowak (2013). Evolutionary construction by staying together and coming together. J theor Biol 320: 10-22. PDF
  392. Yoeli E, M Hoffman, DG Rand, MA Nowak (2013). Powering up with indirect reciprocity in a large-scale field experiment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110 (Suppl 2): 10424-10429. PDF
  393. Zagorsky BM, JG Reiter, K Chatterjee, MA Nowak (2013). Forgiver triumphs in alternating Prisoner's Dilemma. PLoS 8 (12): e80814. DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0080814 PDF
  394. 2014

  395. Adlam B, MA Nowak (2014). Universality of fixation probabilities in randomly structured populations. Nature Scientific Reports 4: 6692. DOI: 10.1038/srep06692
  396. Allen B, MA Nowak (2014). Games on graphs. EMS Surv Math Sci 1(1): 115-151. PDF
  397. Bozic I, MA Nowak (2014)  Timing and heterogeneity of mutations associated with drug-resistance in metastatic cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci 111 (45): 15964-15968.   doi: 10.1073/pnas.1412075111
  398. Chatterjee K, A Pavlogiannis, B Adlam, MA Nowak (2014). The time scale of evolutionary trajectories. PLoS Comput Biol 10(9): e1003818. PDF
  399. Fu F, Kocher SD, Nowak MAN.  (2014)  The risk-return trade-off between solitary and eusocial reproduction.  Ecology Letters  doi: 10.1111/ele.12392
  400. Ghang W, MA Nowak (2014). Stochastic evolution of staying together. J theor Biol 360: 129-136. PDF
  401. Hauser OP, MA Nowak, DG Rand (2014). Punishment does not promote cooperation under exploration dynamics when anti-social punishment is possible. J theor Biol 360: 163-171. PDF
  402. Hauser OP, DG Rand, A Peysakhovich, MA Nowak (2014). Cooperating with the future. Nature 511: 220-223. PDF
  403. Hauser OP, A Traulsen, MA Nowak (2014). Heterogeneity in background fitness acts as a suppressor of selection. J theor Biol 343(21):178-185. PDF
  404. Hilbe C, Wu B, Traulsen A, Nowak MA. (2014) Cooperation and control in multiplayer social dilemmas. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 111(46): 16425-16430. PDF
  405. Hill A, MA Nowak (2014). Mind over matter. Trends Ecol Evol 29(2):74-75. PDF
  406. Hill A, DLS Rosenbloom, F Fu, MA Nowak, RF Siliciano. (2014). Predicting the outcomes of treatment to eradicate the latent reservoir for HIV-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111: 37:134756-13480. dx.doi/10.1073/pnas.1406663111 PDF
  407. Humplik J, AL Hill, MA Nowak (2014). Evolutionary dynamics of infectious diseases in finite populations. J theor Biol 360: 149-162 PDF
  408. Jeong H-C, S-Y Oh, B Allen, MA Nowak (2014). Optional games on cycles and complete graphs. J theor Biol 356(7): 98-112. PDF
  409. Kocher SD, L Pellissier, C Veller, J Purcell, MA Nowak, M Chapuisat, NE Pierce (2014). Transitions in social complexity along elevational gradients reveal a combined impact of season length and development time on social evolution. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 281 (1787): PDF
  410. Markvoort AJ, S Sinai, MA Nowak (2014). Computer simulations of cellular group selection reveal mechanism for sustaining cooperation. J theor Biol 357: 123-133. PDF
  411. Olejarz JW, MA Nowak (2014). Evolution of staying together in the context of diffusible public goods. J theor Biol 360:1-12. PDF
  412. Peysakhovich A, MA Nowak, DG Rand (2014). Humans display a 'cooperative phenotype' that is domain general and temporally stable. Nature Comm PDF
  413. Rand DG, A Dreber, OS Haque, RJ Kane, MA Nowak, S Coakley (2014). Religious motivations for cooperation: an experimental investigation using explicit primes. Religion Brain Behav 4 (1):31-48. PDF
  414. Rand DG, A Peysakhovich, GT Kraft-Todd, GE Newman, O Wurzbacher, MA Nowak, JD Greene (2014). Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation. Nature Comm 5: 1-12. PDF
  415. Szabó G, KS Bodó, B Allen, MA Nowak (2014). Fourier decomposition of payoff matrix for symmetric three-strategy games. Physical Review E 90 (4), 042811. PDF
  416. Rand DG, Nowak MA, Fowler JH, Christakis NA.  (2014) Static network structure can stabilize human cooperation Proc Natl Acad Sci. 111(48):17093-17098. PDF
  417. Wilson EO, MA Nowak (2014). Natural selection drives the evolution of ant life cycles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111(35): 12585-12590. PDF

  418. 2015

  419. Ghang W, MA Nowak. (2015) Indirect reciprocity with optional interactions. J theor Biol.:365: 1-11. PDF
  420. Hoffman, M, E Yoeli, MA Nowak (2015) Cooperate without looking: Why we care what people think and not just what they do. Proc Natl Acad Sci. Epub 2015 Jan 26. PDF
  421. Leventhal G, A Hill, MA Nowak, S Bonhoeffer. (2015) Evolution and emergence of infectious diseases on theoretical and real-world networks. Nature Communications 6(6101) PDF
  422. Tomasetti C, L Marchionni, MA Nowak, G Parmigiani, B Vogelstein. (2015) Only three driver gene mutations are required for development of lung and colorectal cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 112(1):118-123. PDF
  423. In Press

  424. Antal T, PL Krapivsky, MA Nowak (preprint). Spatial evolution of tumors with successive driver mutations.
  425. Ellingsen T, B Herrmann, MA Nowak, DG Rand, CE Tarnita (preprint). Civic capital in two cultures: The nature of cooperation in Romania and USA.
  426. Allen B, C Sample, YA Dementieva, RC Medeiros, C Paoletti, MA Nowak. (preprint) The molecular clock of neutral B, evolution can be accelerated or slowed by asymmetric spatial structure. http://arXiv:1409.5459v1 [q-bio.PE] PDF
  427. Fu F, Nowak MA, Bonhoeffer S.  (in press)  Spatial heterogeneity in drug concentrations can facilitate the emergence of resistance to cancer therapy.
  428. Hilbe C, A Traulsen, B Wu, MA Nowak (preprint). Zero-determinant alliances in multiplayer social dilemmas.
  429. Misale, S, I Bozic, J Tong, A Peraza-Penton, A Lallo, F Baldi, K Lin, L Trusolino, A Bertotti, F Di Nicolantonio, MA Nowak, L Zhang, K Wood, A Bardelli (submitted). Vertical suppression of the EGFR pathway prevents onset of resistance in colorectal cancers.

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