Scholars will find a large amount of archival evidence on the
Cold War here at Harvard, much of it stored in the offices of
the HPCWS. Tens of thousands of photocopied documents stored in
Coolidge Hall are now being cataloged. Most are already available
to researchers, and the rest will be available later this year.
Visit the Online Archive page on this
site to view scanned versions of some of these holdings. Detailed
archival guides are also now available at the HPCWS offices (see
addition, the HPCWS has worked with the Harvard Library Service
to purchase microfilms of important document collections. Of particular
interest is an invaluable set of photocopied and microfilmed documents
from the late General Dmitrii Volkogonov, whose daughter
Olga transferred them to Mark Kramer in 1997-98.
Department microfilm holdings.
The Harvard Libraries possess a vast collection of microfilmed U.S.
State Department documents to supplement the Foreign
Relations of the United States series and other official
Department of State print publications. This collection includes
the Records of the Department of State series, dating back to 1910.
For information regarding coverage of specific time periods, geographic
regions, and Cold War events and themes, please consult the on-line
Harvard Library MARC catalog (HOLLIS)
or the reference desk downstairs in the Government Documents division
of Lamont Library.
Foreign Office files on the US, politics and diplomacy, for 1960-1974;
the files on the US and the Cold War; and the files on the US and
official papers of several Secretaries of State: Marshall, Acheson,
Dulles, and Herter, as well as a collection of press conferences
by the various Secretaries of State, 1922-1973.
from the Truman, Eisenhower, Johnson, and Nixon presidential libraries.
office files and diaries; the minutes and documents of the cabinet
meetings of LBJ [which include special briefings by the Departments
of State and Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the CIA]; the
Confidential File of the Johnson White House [documents segregated
by staff, often containing security or administratively classified
content]; oral histories from the LBJ administration [including
those by Sam Adams, William Bundy, William Colby, Averell Harriman,
Richard Helms, etc.]; as well as the Johnson Administration "pacification
in Vietnam" files [the Robert Komer-William Leonhart files].
minutes of National Security Council meetings from the Truman and
Eisenhower administrations, as well as the NSC files on Asia and
the Pacific, 1963-1969, and on Vietnam, 1961-1969; the Top-Secret
hearings by the US Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 1959-1966;
and CIA Research Reports on Vietnam and Southeast Asia, 1946-1976.
Source Microfilms. Russian Archives: The Cold War and the Central Committee
1: The International Department, 1953-1957. 126 reels.
2: The General Department of the Central Committee, 1953-1966.
3: Plenums of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of
the Soviet Union, 1941-1990. Fond 2, Opisi 1, 3, and 5. Approx.
4: Communist Party of the Soviet Union Congresses, 1955-1986.
Fond 1, Opisi 2-9. Approx. 180 reels.
microfilm holdings. Includes all opisi (catalogs of holdings) of GARF and
RTsKhIDNI archives, plus roughly 10,000 reels of microfilmed documents
from RTsKhIDNI, GARF, and RGANI, numbering more than 25 million
pages. This invaluable microfilm collection was purchased thanks
to a generous donation from a Harvard alumnus. Harvard and Stanford
are the only two places outside Moscow at which the collection is
the HPCWS offices:
HPCWS archive. These
photocopies of archival documents from Eastern Europe and the former
Soviet Union are in the process of being cataloged and put online.
For a general sense of their purview we have provided a brief outline:
Outline of HPCWS archive
Series: "Osobye papki": The "Special Files" of the
USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs. Series Editors: S.V. Mironenko
and V.A. Kozlov
1. "Osobaia papka" I.V. Stalina
The "Special Files" of I. V. Stalin, 1944-1953
detailed description of the 2,237 files directed to Stalin from
the Secretariat of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
2. "Osobaia papka" V.M. Molotova
The "Special Files" of V.M. Molotov, 1944-1956
detailed description of the files directed to Molotov from the
Secretariat of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
3. "Osobaia papka" N.S. Khrushcheva i perepiska MVD
SSSR s TsK KPSS (1957-1959 gg.)
The "Special Files" of N.S. Khrushchev and Correspondence
of the MVD of the USSR with the Central Committee of the Communist
Party of the Soviet Union 1957-1959.
4. "Osobaia papka" L.P. Berii
The "Special Files" of L.P. Beria, 1946-1949. A detailed
description of the files directed to Beria from the Secretariat
of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
State Archive of the Russian Federation: A Guide [3 Volumes]:
1. Fondy Gosudarstvennogo Arkhiva Rossiiskoi Federatsii po istorii
Rossii XIX-nachala XX vv.
1. Collections of the State Archive of the Russian Federation
on the History of Russia from the 19th to the Beginning of the
20th Centuries. Edited by Gregory L. Freeze and S.V. Mironenko.
2. Fondy Gosudarstvennogo Arkhiva Rossiiskoi Federatsii PO istorii
2. Collections of the State Archive of the Russian Federation
on the History of the RSFSR.
of the former TsGA RSFSR]
by Jeffrey Burds and S.V. Mironenko. (Moscow, 1994)
3. Fondy Gosudarstvennogo Arkhiva Rossiiskoi Federatsii PO istorii
3. Collections of the State Archive of the Russian Federation
on the History of the USSR. Edited by S.V. Mironenko. (Moscow,
Guide to Materials on the History of Russian Jewry
M. Deich, Putevoditel': Arkhivnye Dokumenty po istorii Evreev v
Rossii v XIX-nachale XX vv. A
Research Guide to Materials on the History of Russian Jewry (19th
and early 20th Centuries) in Selected Archives of the Former Soviet
Union. Edited and Introduced by Benjamin Nathans. (Moscow, 1994)
to the Documents of Fond 89: Arkhivy Kremlya i Staroi Ploshchadi,
Dokumenty po "Delu KPSS"; Annotirovannyi spravochnik dokumentov,
predstavlennykh v Konstitutsionnyi Sud Rossiiskoi Federatsii po
The Papers of Leon Trotsky
When the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia in November 1917, two
figures stood out among the leaders of the uprising: Vladimir
Lenin and Leon Trotsky. Lenin was the founder of Bolshevism and
the single-minded catalyst of revolution, but Trotsky's role in
the events of November 1917 was no less important. Trotsky was
instrumental in the formation and guidance of the Military Revolutionary
Committee, which spearheaded the Bolshevik coup d'e'tat. Over
the next three years he gained renown in Russia and throughout
the world for his skill in organizing the Red Army against loyalist
White forces. The Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War in
November 1920 boosted Trotsky's fortunes still further. When it
became clear in the early 1920s that Lenin was seriously ill,
Trotsky was widely viewed as the most plausible successor.
a few short years, however, the whole situation had changed. Even
before Lenin's death in 1924, Trotsky was rapidly losing ground
to his long-time nemesis and rival, Josif Stalin. Although a secret
British diplomatic report in 1925 described Trotsky as "the
most powerful figure in Russian Bolshevism" and "the
most significant individual in socialist revolutionary Europe," Stalin, in fact, had already attained a decisive edge. Trotsky,
for all his revolutionary tenacity, often seemed remarkably inept
in his high-level political maneuvering, and he lacked the drive
and instinct needed to attain dominance within the leadership.
In part because of Trotsky's mistakes, Stalin rapidly consolidated
his own power. In October 1926 Trotsky was removed from the Politburo,
and a year later he was ousted from the Central Committee. Within
another month he was expelled from the Communist party, and in
January 1929 he was driven out of his homeland for good.
Until nearly the end of his life, Trotsky harbored at least a
faint hope of returning to the Soviet Union. In March 1933, while
in exile in Turkey, Trotsky sought to reconcile himself with the
Soviet leadership, professing a readiness to "enter into
preliminary negotiations without any publicity" and proclaiming
his "goodwill" in attempting to "ease the strained
atmosphere." He made at least two further attempts at reconciliation
in the latter half of the 1930s. Stalin spurned all such overtures
and instead ordered the secret police (NKVD) to liquidate Trotsky.
After Stalin gave his final orders to the NKVD's chief of "special
tasks," Pavel Sudoplatov, in March 1939, a large-scale operation
got under way in Mexico. It took nearly a year-and-a-half -- and
one botched effort -- before an NKVD agent was finally able to
penetrate the security around Trotsky in August 1940 and lodge
an ice-pick in Trotsky's head. Having dedicated his life to the
cause of violent revolution, Trotsky himself met a violent and
Shortly before his death, Trotsky had begun making preparations
for the sale of his papers to Harvard University. The transaction
was completed by Trotsky's widow, and the archive was transferred
to Harvard in two installments in the 1940s. Trotsky's papers
from before 1929 were promptly opened to scholars, but the materials
he wrote and received while in exile were kept closed until 1980
at the request of both Trotsky himself and his widow. Since then,
the full collection has attracted scholars from around the world.
Collection : Poland and the Solidarity Movement
In the 1970s and early 1980s, Polish blue-collar workers embarked
on a series of bold actions against the Communist regime. Mass
labor protests against the government's abrupt announcement of
food price increases in December 1970 were a milestone in the
development of group cohesion and consciousness among Polish workers.
Strike committees in Szczecin and Gdansk forged links with factories
all over Poland, voicing demands for genuinely independent workers'
organizations. Despite the regime's use of force against the strikes,
the workers persisted until the government rescinded the price
increases in February 1971. This achievement further galvanized
the incipient labor movement in Poland and promoted "class
solidarity" among disparate groups of workers.
Over the next few years, however, the Polish authorities were
able to retract much of what they had conceded, as they clamped
down on workers' organizations and sought to reestablish the monopoly
of the Communist party (PZPR) over all aspects of labor relations.
These efforts ultimately proved futile, despite a brief period
of social tranquility in the early 1970s when economic output
grew rapidly on the basis of heavy borrowing from abroad. When
the government's import-led strategy faltered and collapsed in
the mid- to late 1970s, harsh austerity measures were reimposed.
In June 1976 another announcement of increases on food prices
sparked strikes and protests around the country. Links among workers
were quickly revived and strengthened, as the structure of a nationwide
movement emerged spontaneously. Within less than 24 hours the
government was forced to back down, giving workers a more powerful
sense of their collective ability to bring about desired political
Soon after the June 1976 protests had subsided, the authorities
launched a wave of repression against the strike organizers, sentencing
many to long prison terms. These measures, it turned out, provided
only a temporary respite. The crackdown inspired a group of prominent
intellectuals to set up the Committee for Workers' Defense (KOR)
in September 1976, and the success of KOR prompted the formation
of other dissident groups, including some calling for independent
labor organizations. Workers in central Poland established a small
unofficial trade union in late 1977, the first such entity in
the Soviet bloc. Soon thereafter, similar bodies were set up on
a local basis elsewhere in Poland. The Polish authorities cracked
down harshly against these unofficial unions, but a solid basis
had been laid for the momentous events of 1980-81.
Amidst a surge of strikes and protests in the summer of 1980 the "Solidarity" trade union was established as the first
nationwide workers' organization outside the control of the PZPR.
The independent status of Solidarity was formally approved by
the Polish government in the historic Gdansk accords at the end
of August. The new trade union soon gained a membership of nearly
10 million (i.e., half the adult population of Poland), enabling
it to rival the PZPR for de facto political control. When martial
law was imposed in December 1981, Solidarity and its affiliated
organizations were banned, and they remained officially illegal
until early 1989.
The collection of Solidarity materials in Houghton Library were
gathered from workers' organizations all over Poland. Most of
the items pertain to the 1980-81 crisis, but a substantial number
stem from earlier bouts of mass unrest. Together they provide
a unique view of the emergence of an independent labor movement